The Writing Center
University of North Carolina at Chapel
What this handout is about...
This handout will define
what an argument is and why you need one in most of your academic essays.
Arguments are everywhere...
You may be surprised to hear
that the word “argument” does not have to be written anywhere in your assignment for it to be an important part
of your task. In fact, making an argument—expressing a point of view on a subject and supporting it with evidence—is
often the aim of academic writing. Your instructors may assume that you know this fact, and therefore they may not explain
its importance to you in class. Nevertheless, if your writing assignment asks you to respond to reading and discussion in
class, your instructor likely expects you to produce an argument in your paper.
Most material you learn in
college is or has been debated by someone, somewhere, at some time. Even when the material you read or hear is presented as
simple “information” or “fact,” it may actually be one person’s interpretation of a set of information
or facts. In your writing, instructors may call on you to question that interpretation and either defend it, refute it, or
offer some new view of your own. In writing assignments, you will almost always need to do more than just present information
that you have gathered or regurgitate information that was discussed in class. You will need to select a point of view and
provide evidence (in other words, use “argument”) to shape the material and offer your interpretation of the material.
If you think that “fact,”
not argument, rules intelligent thinking, consider these examples. At one point, the “great minds” of Western Europe firmly believed the Earth was flat. They had discussions about how obviously true this
“fact” was. You are able to disagree now because people who saw that argument as faulty set out to make a better
argument and proved it. Differences of opinion are how human knowledge develops, and scholars like your instructors spend
their lives engaged in debate over what may be counted as “true,” “real,” or “right” in
their fields. In their courses, they want you to engage in similar kinds of critical thinking and debate in your writing.
Argumentation is not just
what your instructors do. We all use argumentation on a daily basis, and you probably already have some skill at crafting
an argument. The more you improve your skills in this area, the better you will be at thinking critically, reasoning, making
choices, and weighing evidence.
Making a Claim
What is an argument? In academic
writing, an argument is usually a main idea, often called a “claim” or “thesis statement,” backed
up with evidence that supports the idea. Ninety-nine percent of the time you will need to make some sort of claim and use
evidence to support it, and your ability to do this well will separate your papers from those of students who see assignments
as mere accumulations of fact and detail. In other words, gone are the happy days of being given a “topic” about
which you can write anything. It is time to stake out a position and prove why it is a good position for a thinking person
Claims can be as simple as
“protons are positively charged and electrons are negatively charged,” with evidence such as, “In this experiment,
protons and electrons acted in such and such a way.” Claims can also be as complex as “the end of the South African
system of apartheid was inevitable,” using reasoning and evidence such as, “Every successful revolution in the
modem era has come about after the government in power has given and then removed small concessions to the uprising group.”
In either case, the rest of your paper will detail reasons and facts that have led you to believe that your position is best.
When beginning to write a
paper, ask yourself, “What is my point”? For example, the point of this handout is to help you become a better
writer, and we are arguing that an important step in the process of writing argumentation is understanding the concept of
argumentation. If your papers do not have a main point, they cannot be arguing for anything. Asking yourself what your point
is can help you avoid a mere “information dump.” Consider this: Your instructors probably know a lot more than
you do about your subject matter. Why, then, would you want to provide them with material they already know? Instructors are
usually looking for two things:
1. Proof that you understand
the material, AND
2. A demonstration of your
ability to use or apply the material beyond what you have read or heard.
This second part can be done
in many ways: You can critique the material, or apply it to something else, or even just explain it in a different way. In
order to achieve this second step, though, you must have a particular point to argue.
Arguments in academic writing
are usually complex and take time to develop. Your argument will need to be more than a simple or obvious statement such as,
“Frank Lloyd Wright was a great architect.” Such a statement might capture your initial impressions of Wright
as you have studied him in class; however, you need to look deeper and express specifically what caused that “greatness.”
Your instructor will probably expect something more complicated, such as, “Frank Lloyd Wright’s architecture combines
elements of European modernism, Asian aesthetic form, and locally found materials to create a unique new style,” or
“There are many strong similarities between Wright’s building designs and those of his mother’s, which suggests
that he may have borrowed some of her ideas.” Then you would define your terms and prove your argument with evidence
from Wright’s drawings and buildings and those of the other architects you mentioned.
Do not stop with having a
point. You have to back up your point with evidence. The strength of your evidence, and your use of it, can make or break
your argument. You already have the natural inclination for this type of thinking, if not in an academic setting. Think about
how you talked your parents into letting you borrow the car. Did you present them with lots of instances of trustworthiness
on your part from the past? Did you make them feel guilty, because your friends’ parents all let them drive? Did you
whine until they just wanted you to shut up? Did you look up statistics on teen driving and use them to show how you didn’t
fit the dangerous-driver profile? These are all types of argumentation, and they exist in academia in similar forms.
Every field has slightly
different requirements for acceptable evidence, so familiarize yourself with some arguments from within that field instead
of] ust applying whatever evidence you like best. Pay attention to your textbooks and your instructors lectures. What types
of argument and evidence are they using? The type of evidence that sways an English instructor may not work to convince a
Sociology instructor. Find out what counts as proof that something is true in that field. Is it statistics, a logical development
of points, something from the object being discussed (art work, text, culture, or atom), the way something works, or some
combination of more than one of these things?
Be consistent with your evidence.
Unlike negotiating for the use of your parents’ car, a college paper is not the place for an all-out blitz of every
type of argument. You can often use more than one type of evidence within a paper, but make sure that within each section
you are providing the reader with evidence appropriate to each claim. So, if you start a paragraph or section with a statement
like “putting the student section closer to the court in the Dean Dome will raise player performance,” do not
follow with your evidence on how much more tuition is raised by letting more students go to games for free. Information about
how fan support raises player morale, which then results in better play, would be a better follow-up. Then the next section
could offer clear reasons why undergraduates have as much or more right to attend an undergraduate event as wealthy alumni--but
not in the same section as the fan support stuff. You cannot convince a confused person, so keep things tidy and ordered.
One way to strengthen your
argument and show that you have a deep understanding of the issue you are discussing is to anticipate and address counterarguments
or objections. By considering what someone who disagrees with your position might have to say about your argument, you show
that your have thought things through, and you dispose of some of the reasons your audience might have for not accepting your
argument. Recall our discussion of student seating in the Dean Dome. To make the most effective argument possible, you should
consider not only what students would say about seating, but also what alumni who have paid a lot to get good seats might
say about the issue.
You can generate counterarguments
by asking yourself what someone who disagrees with you might say about each of the points you’ve made or about your
position as a whole. If you can’t immediately imagine another position, here are some strategies to try:
Do some research. It may seem to you that no one could possibly disagree with the position you are arguing,
but someone probably has. For example, some people argue that the American Civil War never ended. If you are making an argument
concerning, for example, the outcomes of the Civil War, you might wish to see what some of these people have to say.
• Talk with a friend
or with your teacher. Another person may be able to imagine counterarguments that haven’t occurred to you.
• Consider the conclusion
and the premises of your argument, and imagine someone who denies each of them. Then you can see which of these arguments
are most worth considering. For example, if you argued “Cats make the best pets. This is because they are clean and
independent,” you might imagine someone saying “Cats do not make the best pets. They are dirty and needy.”
Once you have thought up
some counterarguments, consider how you will respond to them--will you concede that your opponent has a point but explain
why your audience should nonetheless accept your argument? Will you reject the counterargument and explain why it is mistaken?
Either way, you will want to leave your reader with a sense that your argument is stronger than opposing arguments.
When you are summarizing
opposing arguments, be charitable. Present each argument fairly and objectively, rather than trying to make it look foolish.
You want to show that you have seriously considered the many sides of the issue, and that you are not simply attacking or
caricaturing your opponents.
It is usually better to consider
one or two serious counterarguments in some depth, rather than to give a long but superficial list of many different counterarguments
Be sure that your reply is
consistent with your original argument. If considering a counterargument changes your position, you will need to go back and
revise your original argument accordingly.
Audience is a
very important consideration in argument. A lifetime of dealing with your parents has helped you figure out which arguments
work in different situations. Maybe whining works with your dad, but your mom will only accept cold, hard statistics. Your
kid brother may listen only to the sound of money in his palm. It’s usually wise to think of your audience in an academic
setting as someone who is perfectly smart, but who doesn’t already or necessarily agree with you. You are not just expressing
your opinion in an argument (“it’s true because I said so”)--and in most cases your audience is pretty knowledgeable
on the subject at hand--so you will need sturdier proof. At the same time, do not think of your audience as a genius clairvoyant.
You have to come out and state both your claim and your evidence clearly. Do not assume that because the instructor knows
the material that he or she understands what part of it you are using, what you think about it, and why.
Critical reading is a big
part of understanding argument. Although some of the material you read will be very persuasive, do not fall under the spell
of the printed word as authority. Very few of your instructors think of the texts they assign as the last word on the subject.
Remember that the author of every text has an agenda, something that they want you to believe. Take notes either in the margins
or on a separate sheet as you read. Put away that highlighter! Simply highlighting a text is only good for memorizing that
text--it does not encourage critical reading. Part of the goal is to put the author’s ideas in your own words. Then
you can stop thinking of these ideas as facts and start thinking of them as arguments.
When you read, ask yourself
questions like “What is the author trying to prove?” and “What is the author assuming I will agree with?”
Do you agree with the author? Does the author adequately defend her argument? What kind of proof does she use? Is there something
she leaves out that you would put in? Does putting it in hurt her argument? As you get used to reading critically, you will
start to see the sometimes hidden agendas of other writers, and you can use this skill to improve your own ability to argue.
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Lunsford, Andrea and John
Ruszkiewicz. Everything’s an Argument. Boston/New
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